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[21], Ezekiel depicts the destruction of Jerusalem as a purificatory sacrifice upon the altar, made necessary by the "abominations" in the Temple (the presence of idols and the worship of the god Tammuz) described in chapter 8. [24] In sum, the book describes God's promise that the people of Israel will maintain their covenant with God when they are purified and receive a "new heart" (another of the book's images) which will enable them to observe God's commandments and live in the land in a proper relationship with Yahweh. [1] According to the book itself, it records six visions of the prophet Ezekiel, exiled in Babylon, during the 22 years from 593 to 571 BC, although it is the product of a long and complex history and does not necessarily preserve the very words of the prophet.[2]. He was a Jewish prophet living in exile in Babylon from about 597 BC. Nonetheless, Ezekiel shared many ideas in common with the Deuteronomists, notably the notion that God works according to the principle of retributive justice and an ambivalence towards kingship (although the Deuteronomists reserved their scorn for individual kings rather than for the office itself). The Greek version of these books is called the Septuagint. He appears to have spent the rest of his life in Mesopotamia. [18], The first half of the 20th century saw several attempts to deny the authorship and authenticity of the book, with scholars such as C. C. Torrey (1863–1956) and Morton Smith placing it variously in the 3rd century BC and in the 8th/7th. 5, § 1) that Ezekiel wrote two books is entirely enigmatical. Daniel and Ezekiel were roughly the same age, although Daniel was already established in his prophetic ministry in Babylon by the time Ezekiel arrived (Ezekiel 14:14 and 20, 28:3). Who wrote this book? Most scholars today accept the basic authenticity of the book, but see in it significant additions by a "school" of later followers of the original prophet. The Book of Ezekiel, written by the prophetpriest Ezekiel, who lived both in Jerusalem prior to the Babylonian Exile (586 bce) and in Babylon after the Exile, and also by an editor (or editors), who belongs to a “school” of the prophet similar to that of the prophet Isaiah, has captured the attention of readers for centuries because of its vivid imagery and symbolism. This summary of the book of Ezekiel provides information about the title, author(s), date of writing, chronology, theme, theology, outline, a brief overview, and the chapters of the Book of Ezekiel. The Book of Ezekiel Introduction to the Book of Ezekiel in the Bible. Summary of the Book of Ezekiel. Ezekiel wrote the book that bears his name. While the book exhibits considerable unity and probably reflects much of the historic Ezekiel, it is the product … How long will the footprints on the moon last? Who of the proclaimers was married to a little person? Purpose of Writing: Ezekiel ministered to his generation who were both exceedingly sinful and thoroughly hopeless. How long will it take to cook a 12 pound turkey? The Jewish Bible in Hebrew is called the Masoretic text (meaning passing down after a Hebrew word Masorah; for Jewish scholars and rabbis curated and commented on the text). [19], As a priest, Ezekiel is fundamentally concerned with the Kavod YHWH, a technical phrase meaning the presence (shekhinah) of YHWH (i.e., one of the Names of God) among the people, in the Tabernacle, and in the Temple, and normally translated as "glory of God". A further deportation of Jews from Jerusalem to Babylon occurred in 586 when a second unsuccessful rebellion resulted in the destruction of the city and its Temple and the exile of the remaining elements of the royal court, including the last scribes and priests. x. [16] While the book exhibits considerable unity and probably reflects much of the historic Ezekiel, it is the product of a long and complex history and does not necessarily preserve the very words of the prophet. [27] There was apparently some question concerning the inclusion of Ezekiel in the canon of scripture, since it is frequently at odds with the Torah (the five "Books of Moses" which are foundational to Judaism). 9b-25a, has, with more or less justification, sometimes been questioned. 8-17, xxiv. Zimmerli traces the process by which Ezekiel's oracles were delivered orally and transformed into a written text by the prophet and his followers through a process of ongoing re-writing and re-interpretation. Date of Writing: The Book of Ezekiel was likely written between 593 and 565 B.C. Author: The Prophet Ezekiel is the author of the book (Ezekiel 1:3). Background. [5], The Book of Ezekiel describes itself as the words of the Ezekiel ben-Buzi, a priest living in exile in the city of Babylon between 593 and 571 BC. Its later influence has included the development of mystical and apocalyptic traditions in Second Temple and rabbinic Judaism and Christianity. Ezekiel’s Style: Word Pictures and Technical Descriptions “You are to them like a song on the flute, which has a beautiful voice and plays well,” G‑d tells Ezekiel.12 Ironically, Ezekiel is one of the few prophets whose book is largely written in prose. [21] The vision in chapters 1:4–28 reflects common mythological/Biblical themes and the imagery of the Temple: God appears in a cloud from the north – the north being the usual home of God/the gods in ancient mythology and Biblical literature – with four living creatures corresponding to the two cherubim above the Mercy Seat of the Ark of the Covenant and the two in the Holy of Holies, the innermost chamber of the Temple; the burning coals of fire between the creatures perhaps represents the fire on the sacrificial altar, and the famous "wheel within a wheel" may represent the rings by which the Levites carried the Ark, or the wheels of the cart. during the Babylonian captivity of the Jews. The pendulum swung back in the post-war period, with an increasing acceptance of the book's essential unity and historical placement in the Exile. The Book of Ezekiel is the third of the Latter Prophets in the Tanakh and one of the major prophetic books in the Old Testament, following Isaiah and Jeremiah. The doubt cast upon the authenticity of the book by Zunz, Seinecke, and Vernes has rightly never been taken seriously; but the authorship of several parts, such as iii. 22-23, and xxvii. 8-17, xxiv. In the 1st century AD the historian Josephus said that the prophet wrote two books: he may have had in mind the Apocryphon of Ezekiel, a 1st-century BC text that expands on the doctrine of resurrection. We know he was a member of a priestly family (Ezek 1:3), was married (Ezek 24:15-18), and lived in his own house (Ezek 3:24; 8:1). He is specifically mentioned by Ben Sirah (a writer of the Hellenistic period who listed the "great sages" of Israel) and 4 Maccabees (1st century AD). Josiah was killed in 609 and Judah became a vassal of the new regional power, the Neo-Babylonian empire. Ezekiel. The book moves on to anticipate the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple, explains this as God's punishment, and closes with the promise of a new beginning and a new Temple. 16b-21, x. Is evaporated milk the same thing as condensed milk? Ezekiel was married, the death of his wife is recorded in Ezekiel 24:15-27. Ezekiel was a priest who was among the Jewish captives carried away to Babylon by King Nebuchadnezzar in approximately 597 B.C. When did organ music become associated with baseball? Who is the longest reigning WWE Champion of all time? Most scholars today accept the basic authenticity of the book, but see in it significant additions by a "school" of later followers of the original prophet. Copyright © 2020 Multiply Media, LLC. (see Ezekiel 1:3). The Book of Ezekiel is the third of the Latter Prophets in the Tanakh and one of the major prophetic books in the Old Testament, following Isaiah and Jeremiah. Ezekiel 3:17-19 - Son of man, I have made thee a watchman unto the house of Israel: therefore hear the word at my mouth, and give them warning from me. 5, § 1) that Ezekiel wrote two books is entirely enigmatical. Prior to this time, Judah had been a vassal of the Assyrian empire, but the rapid decline of Assyria after c. 630 led Josiah to assert his independence and institute a religious reform stressing loyalty to Yahweh, the national God of Israel. He is clearly connected with the Holiness Code and its vision of a future dependent on keeping the Laws of God and maintaining ritual purity. [2], According to the book that bears his name, Ezekiel ben-Buzi was born into a priestly family of Jerusalem c.623 BC, during the reign of the reforming king Josiah. Ezekiel lived during a time of international upheaval. [23] Nevertheless, the prophet announces that a small remnant will remain true to Yahweh in exile, and will return to the purified city. [20] In Ezekiel the phrase describes God mounted on His throne-chariot as he departs from the Temple in chapters 1–11 and returns to what Marvin Sweeney describes as a portrayal of "the establishment of the new temple in Zion as YHWH returns to the temple, which then serves as the center for a new creation with the tribes of Israel arrayed around it" in chapters 40–48. The "throne vision", in which Ezekiel sees God enthroned in the Temple among the Heavenly Host; The first "temple vision", in which Ezekiel sees God leave the Temple because of the abominations practiced there (meaning the worship of idols rather than YHWH, the official God of Judah; Images of Israel, in which Israel is seen as a harlot bride, among other things; The final temple vision, in which Ezekiel sees a new commonwealth centered around a new temple in Jerusalem, sometimes called the, This page was last edited on 25 November 2020, at 19:53. 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