# underdog in a sentence

Can we drop unnecessary computations for easy inputs? This course is being taught at as part of Master Datascience Paris Saclay. Inria. We thank the Orange-Keyrus-Thalès chair for supporting this class. Bayesian methods can Impose useful priors on Neural Networks helping discover solutions of special form; Provide better predictions; Provide Neural Networks with uncertainty estimates (uncovered) Neural Networks help us make more efficient Bayesian inference; Uses a lot of math; Active area of research lectures-labs maintained by m2dsupsdlclass, Convolutional Neural Networks for Image Classification, Deep Learning for Object Detection and Image Segmentation, Sequence to sequence, attention and memory, Expressivity, Optimization and Generalization, Imbalanced classification and metric learning, Unsupervised Deep Learning and Generative models, Demo: Object Detection with pretrained RetinaNet with Keras, Backpropagation in Neural Networks using Numpy, Neural Recommender Systems with Explicit Feedback, Neural Recommender Systems with Implicit Feedback and the Triplet Loss, Fine Tuning a pretrained ConvNet with Keras (GPU required), Bonus: Convolution and ConvNets with TensorFlow, ConvNets for Classification and Localization, Character Level Language Model (GPU required), Transformers (BERT fine-tuning): Joint Intent Classification and Slot Filling, Translation of Numeric Phrases with Seq2Seq, Stochastic Optimization Landscape in Pytorch. Nature 2015 However, while deep learning has proven itself to be extremely powerful, most of today’s most successful deep learning systems suffer from a number of important limitations, ranging from the requirement for enormous training data sets to lack of interpretability to vulnerability to … 6.S191: Introduction to Deep Learning The slides are published under the terms of the CC-By 4.0 In this study, we used two deep-learning algorithms based … Predicting survival after hepatocellular carcinoma resection using deep-learning on histological slides Hepatology. This automatic feature learning has been demonstrated to uncover underlying structure in the data leading to state-of-the-art results in tasks in vision, speech and rapidly in other domains as well. CNNs are the current state-of-the-art architecture for medical image analysis. Dimensions of a learning system (different types of feedback, representation, use of knowledge) 3. UC Berkeley has done a lot of remarkable work on deep learning, including the famous Caffe — Deep Leaning Framework. "Learning representations by back-propagating errors." Cognitive modeling 5.3 (1988): 1. The course is Berkeley’s current offering of deep learning. Video and slides of NeurIPS tutorial on Efficient Processing of Deep Neural Networks: from Algorithms to Hardware Architectures available here. Computationally stained slides could help automate the time-consuming process of slide staining, but Shah said the ability to de-stain and preserve images for future use is the real advantage of the deep learning techniques. Description. We plan to offer lecture slides accompanying all chapters of this book. • LeCun, Yann, et al. Deep Learning Handbook. The Deep Learning case! Direct links to the rendered notebooks including solutions (to be updated in rendered mode): This lecture is built and maintained by Olivier Grisel and Charles Ollion, Charles Ollion, head of research at Heuritech - deep learning is driving significant advancements across industries, enterprises, and our everyday lives. • 1993: Nvidia started… • Hinton, Geoffrey E., Simon Osindero, and Yee-Whye Teh. Recently, deep learning has produced a set of image analysis techniques that automatically extract relevant features, transforming the field of computer vision. Machine Learning: An Overview: The slides presentintroduction to machine learningalong with some of the following: 1. "Backpropagation applied to handwritten zip code recognition." As data volumes keep growing, it has become customary to train large neural networks with hundreds of millions of parameters to maintain enough capacity to memorize these volumes and obtain state-of-the-art accuracy. Note: press “P” to display the presenter’s notes that include some comments and Obtain a sample from (or the mode statistic of) the true posterior $$ p(y, z \mid x) \propto p(y|x, z) p(z) $$, We define some joint model \(p(y, \theta | x) = p(y | x, \theta) p(\theta) \), We obtain observations \( \mathcal{D} = \{ (x_1, y_1), ..., (x_N, y_N) \} \), We would like to infer possible values of \(\theta\) given observed data \(\mathcal{D}\) $$ p(\theta \mid \mathcal{D}) = \frac{p(\mathcal{D} | \theta) p(\theta)}{\int p(\mathcal{D}|\theta) p(\theta) d\theta} $$, We will be approximating true posterior distribution with an approximate one, Need a distance between distributions to measure how good the approximation is $$ \text{KL}(q(x) || p(x)) = \mathbb{E}_{q(x)} \log \frac{q(x)}{p(x)} \quad\quad \textbf{Kullback-Leibler divergence}$$, Not an actual distance, but \( \text{KL}(q(x) || p(x)) = 0 \) iff \(q(x) = p(x)\) for all \(x\) and is strictly positive otherwise, Will be minimizing \( \text{KL}(q(\theta) || p(\theta | \mathcal{D})) \) over \(q\), We'll take \(q(\theta)\) from some tractable parametric family, for example Gaussian $$ q(\theta | \Lambda) = \mathcal{N}(\theta \mid \mu(\Lambda), \Sigma(\Lambda)) $$, Then we reformulate the objective s.t. Deep Learning algorithms aim to learn feature hierarchies with features at higher levels in the hierarchy formed by the composition of lower level features. Generator network and inference network essentially give us autoencoder, Inference network encodes observations into latent code, Generator network decodes latent code into observations, Can infer high-level abstract features of existing objects, Uses neural network to amortize inference, Bayesian methods are useful when we have low data-to-parameters ratio, Impose useful priors on Neural Networks helping discover solutions of special form, Provide Neural Networks with uncertainty estimates (uncovered), Neural Networks help us make more efficient Bayesian inference. license. Deep Learning An MIT Press book in preparation Ian Goodfellow, Yoshua Bengio and Aaron Courville. The course covers the basics of Deep Learning, with a focus on applications. Jeez, how is that related to this slide? The Jupyter notebooks for the labs can be found in the labs folder of Deep learning algorithms are similar to how nervous system structured where each neuron connected each other and passing information. Lecture slides for Chapter 4 of Deep Learning www.deeplearningbook.org Ian Goodfellow Last modiﬁed 2017-10-14 Thanks to Justin Gilmer and Jacob Buckman for helpful discussions (Goodfellow 2017) Numerical concerns for implementations of deep learning algorithms Gradient-based optimization in discrete models is hard, Invoke the Central Limit Theorem and turn the model into a continuous one, Consider a model with continuous noise on weights $$ q(\theta_i | \Lambda) = \mathcal{N}(\theta_i | \mu_i(\Lambda), \alpha_i(\Lambda) \mu^2_i(\Lambda)) $$, Neural Networks have lots of parameters, surely there's some redundancy in them, Let's take a prior \(p(\theta)\) that would encourage large \(\alpha\), Large \(\alpha_i\) would imply that weight \(\theta_i\) is unbounded noise that corrupts predictions, Such weights won't be doing anything useful, hence it should be zeroed out by putting \(\mu_i(\Lambda) = 0\), Thus the weight \(\theta_i\) would effectively turn into a deterministic 0. Its uncertainty quantified by the, This requires us to know the posterior distribution on model parameters \(p(\theta \mid \mathcal{D})\) which we obtain using the Bayes' rule, Suppose the model \(y \sim \mathcal{N}(\theta^T x, \sigma^2)\), with \( \theta \sim \mathcal{N}(\mu_0, \sigma_0^2 I) \), Suppose we observed some data from this model \( \mathcal{D} = \{(x_n, y_n)\}_{n=1}^N \) (generated using the same \( \theta^* \)), We don't know the optimal \(\theta\), but the more data we observe, Posterior predictive would also be Gaussian $$ p(y|x, \mathcal{D}) = \mathcal{N}(y \mid \mu_N^T x, \sigma_N^2) $$, Suppose we observe a sequence of coin flips \((x_1, ..., x_N, ...)\), but don't know whether the coin is fair $$ x \sim \text{Bern}(\pi), \quad \pi \sim U(0, 1) $$, First, we infer posterior distribution on a hidden parameter \(\pi\) having observed \(x_{

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